All educational matters from pre-school to adult education are placed under the Ministry of Education and Research. In Sweden there is a law, the Act for Equal Treatment of Students in Higher Education. This was issued in 2001 and states:Equal treatment should be granted regardless of sex, ethnic origin, religion, sexual orientation, disabilities.
Harassment (from staff or students) and discrimination are to be prevented.
An annual plan has to be issued by each university to actively promote equal treatment.
Weak spots are to be found in cooperation with students.
In case of reported harassment or discrimination (based on the student's feelings), there's an obligation to investigate and take measures.
There is an entitlement for all Swedish students to apply for economical support from the Swedish National Board of Student Aid. This is a government agency, under the Ministry of education and research. The student may apply for up to 12 semesters of allowances and loans.
The standard grading system of Swedish universities is:
•VG - Väl godkänd which is passed with distinction
•G - Godkänd which is passed
•U - Underkänd which is fail
The mandatory requirement before being admitted into higher education in Sweden is that the student has a minimum vocabulary and language skill in Swedish and English. There are a variety of programmes on offer in higher education:
•Basic level which consists of the University Diploma over 2 years or the Degree of Bachelor over 3 years. To do this the student must have passed upper secondary school or its equivalent.
•Advanced level which consists of a Degree of Master over 1 or 2 years. To do this the student must have passed 3 years at university basic level or equivalent
•Doctoral level which consists of the Degree of Licentiate over 2 years or Degree of Doctor over 4 years. To do this the student must have a degree at advanced level or equivalent
There are two types of institutions offered for higher education:
•Universitet – These are universities which are research orientated. By studying through such an institution, a student can attain a bachelor, masters or doctorate degree. Nearly all universities began as university colleges and after some years were promoted to status and establishment on university. There are two exceptions, Uppsala University and Lund University were universities right from the beginning of their educational teachings.
•Högskola – This is literally translated as high school but its formal translation is university college. Sometimes universities of an older history in specialised fields such as in medicine may still be referred to as a högskola. Basically a university college is where students can study applied sciences. Such institutions may award doctorate degrees (PhDs) but only in limited ways (that is not in all academic fields). University is in many ways similar to a university, yet smaller.
The following is a list of universities in Sweden, from the oldest established to the youngest:
•Uppsala University 1477
•Lund University 1666
•University of Gothenburg 1954
•University of Stockholm 1960
•Karolinska Institutet 1965
•Umeå University 1965
•Royal Institute of Technology 1970
•Linköping University 1975
•Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences 1977
•Luleå University of Technology 1997
•Karlstad University 1999
•Örebro University 1999
•Mid Sweden University 2005
•Linnaeus University 2010
Statistics reveal that a higher percentage of women, compared to men, have post-graduate degrees.
For more information, please view: http://www.studyinsweden.se/