„Graf Adolf IV. von Schauenburg“ vor dem Kieler Kloster

Graf Adolf IV of Schauenburg, founder of the city of Kiel,and founder of the Franciscan monastery. In fulfilment of an oath taken during the heat of the Battle of Bornhöved against the Danes, Adolf withdrew in 1238 to a Franciscan monk and in 1244 was ordained a priest in Rome. He died in 1261 in the Franciscan friary in Kiel, which he himself had founded.

The Battle of Bornhöved

On the 7 December 1813, in what was then the minor village of Bornhöft in northern Germany, there was a significant battle between Sweden and Denmark. The fighting that took place during this significant battle is recorded in history as being part of the Napoleon Wars.

At the time of Napoleon Bonaparte's rule over France, from 1805 to 1815 there were a series of global conflicts. The wars were to a degree an extension of the French Revolutionary Wars. Sweden would also take part in a coalition battle, known as the Fourth Coalition in 1806 to 1807, against Imperial France. During the Napoleonic Wars, Sweden and the United Kingdom were allies in the sense that they opposed Imperial France and fought together during what was known as the Sixth Coalition in 1812 to 1814. However Denmark and Norway supported France, as they became an ally to Napoleon Bonaparte. The Sixth Coalition was when Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain with a number of German States did finally defeated France. This lead to Napoleon being compelled into exile, but only after about two and a half million troops fought in this conflict and which led to about two million fatalities.

The Battle of Bornhöved would go done in history as the last time that Sweden and Denmark fought against each other on the battlefield. Prince Frederik of Hesse was the commander and leader of the Danish troops and Bror Cederström (a baron, general and Minister of War) was the commander and leader of the attacking Swedish troops.

Prince Charles John of Sweden, had a strong army at this point during the wars as he had kept back many of his troops and allowed the allies to go on fighting. His intention was to save his army force for later use, after other forces had sustained heavy losses. Although the Danes attempted to retreat, the Swedes were victorious in winning this planned battle.

Due to this battle Sweden opened the door to gain rule over Norway. After the signing of the Treaty of Kiel, about a year later in 1814 Sweden had Norway in writing. The Treaty of Kiel is also known as the Peace of Kiel, was a contract or signed agreement between Sweden, Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain on one side and the countries of Denmark and Norway on the other side.

With this treaty it was agreed that Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands (although under Norway) would remain as Denmark’s rule on monarchy. The rest of mainland Norway was given to Sweden, yet Norway did not agree to this at first. Norway intended to fight for its sovereignty and it did, by electing its own king and forming its own constitution. This led to a later brief war between Norway and Sweden, and ultimately the Convention of Moss (where the two countries formed a personal union). The Convention of Moss was basically a cease fire agreement that took place in August 1814. This union would last for many years until 1905, when Norway formed.